What is DSDM?
DSDM is one of the Agile development model (See Appendix A). When the first step is completed that will be moved to next step. DSDM Consortium is defined like that. DSDM is base on best practices also combines the most effective use of people's knowledge and experience, tools and techniques to complete within fix timeframes.
Benefit of using DSDM in MIS
DSDM help several tangible and intangible benefits. The organizations will get better designed system, better documentation system and improve productivity. For example, some of the CSA staff feel burden of using IT. DSDM can help this problem. This can remove burden of walls between MIS and user. So, CSA staffs improve morale in working environment. CSA also can get higher system quality of MIS.
In DSDM, time and resource are fixed, but functions are variable. While developing new MIS by using DSDM framework, it has 18 months. When DSDM allow functions are variable, CSA can get actual business needed for all functions. This main point is benefit of CSA by using DSDM.
Most of the CSA staff wants to change new MIS. CSA staff actively involved during developing new MIS that the system is actual CSA's project needed. Moreover, the new system is easier to use and understand for all CSA staffs. But, some of the CSA's staff have negative point of view for developing new MIS. Anyhow, all CSA's staff are agreed to develop new MIS. Because of, all CSA staff is agreed on project manager's motivation. DSDM framework is based on human value.
Assume that, when MIS is developing by normally that may be longed round about two years. But, in this MIS is only 18 months. Because of all DSDM team members have empowered to make decisions. So, it can be avoid to project delay. Otherwise, all deliverables of products (MIS) is frequently to CSA.
In fact, iterative and incremental approach is use during developing new MIS for CSA. That can be used every stages of DSDM life cycle. Very important functions (minimum usable subset) of CSA can be addressed early by using in this approach. Other important functions are delivered later.
DSDM allows new MIS to grow incrementally. So, the developers can develop user feedback. And then, partial solutions can be delivered to satisfy immediate of CSA needed. Iteration is also continuously improved the MIS being developed. Since DSDM framework is allows reworking, the development of new MIS can be proceeding more quickly during iteration. The new technologies of iterative and incremental allow visualization of the internal product of new MIS development. Again, iterative model of system development allow changing requirements.
The first principle of DSDM framework is active user involvement imperative. So, users are more likely to obtain ownership of the system. Moreover, users can get better training. And then, risk can be greatly reduced of wrong system building. Because of, testing is integrated throughout the life cycle. Final product is also likely to meet the business requirements. Implementation is smoothly because of all stakeholders are cooperated throughout the development. All team members are improved "soft skills" (ethic) because of DSDM is also based on people ethic. And then, better management for all team members during developing MIS. Because of resources are fixed. So, effectively management is for all resources by management point of view. The project manager can also improve motivation within all team members. This is one of the facts of project success.
If one system develops to new system by using DSDM, the development team must be needed "soft skill or ethics". Because of DSDM framework is based on human values. DSDM allow empowered (decision making) to the peoples. If so, the new system must be got high quality product and greater acceptance. DSDM can create a pro-active attitude form people involved. Assume that, there are most important principles of DSDM such as active user involvement imperative, empower to decision making, frequent delivery of product and collaborative & cooperative approach.
The system can get high level quality of function and easy to use by interaction between the developer (programmer) and users. The system can also avoid misunderstanding and misconceptions by increasing integrated testing. If the implement the new system that can get time saving, effort, quality and rapid implementation.
The new system will get good software, because of the people working with ethic. Based on DSDM knowledge and experience, programmers or developers increase a professional ethic (integrated professional qualities) and project participants grow both as professionals and as people. Moreover, the whole organization can get greatly benefits. This new skills (ethic) can reusable anywhere and anytime.
If the system develops to new system by using DSDM framework, the new system can get the several benefits. The development results are able to seen absolutely and exactly. The new system is to deliver on budget and on time. When the user actively involved in the development process all business requirements can be match with user requirement. All fundamental requirements functionality is deliver quickly, with more functionality being delivered at regular intervals. DSDM framework allows all users testing throughout the development process which allowing the senior developer to get quickly on the usability and suitability of the project.
If the system develops to new system by using DSDM, 80% of business benefits come from 20% of system requirements. So, 20% of system requirements will be meeting with 80% business requirements. And then, DSDM team members will get good communication skill and good practice of team work. Because of DSDM help to communicate within fix timeframes between users and IT staffs, different level of management, across team members and analysts and designer. And then, actual progress of project is more accurate visibility. Moreover, the system better addresses the customer and business needs. DSDM also provide control of time, quality, cost and resource. The toolset (MoSCoW prioritization, timeboxig, facilitated workshop and prototyping) also provide to DSDM. The toolsets is aim to ensure effective delivery of product by fix time and resource.
Disadvantages of using DSDM
First, DSDM is new technology. So, it is difficult to use. If the project don't have experience of using DSDM framework and toolsets, that can face a lot of difficult such as misunderstanding and misinterpretation. CSA's staff did not know what requirements are baselines at a high level. And then, DSDM is not suitable for all system. If the new system develops by using DSDM that will be choose by DSDM six filters (See Appendix B). If the system is can't accept by six filters, that can't develop by using DSDM. So, DSDM is not suitable for all system.
DSDM team members are senior peoples. So, junior people face less job opportunities. And then, the software development team can't have new generation in the features. Moreover, cost is very expensive for high level people. When user involvement, the user will be felt overloading concern with work. If the project can't completely handle to DSDM toolset that can't get full benefit of using DSDM. And then, user always thinks all functions are important. In DSDM framework, the important functions are doing first. The whole system is so important that it cannot run lack of these important functions (minimum usable subset). For example, also CSA's MIS cannot run without produce report, record KPI and record contract.
If the new system develop by using DSDM framework, that will be required to choose right people. If cannot choose right people, the project can't success. Because of all persons are high level people. And then, these all persons must be need professional ethic. If they don't have any professional ethic, the project can't be success to goals. Because of, DSDM framework has nine principles (See Appendix A). The second principle (DSDM team must be empowered to make decisions) and the last principle (A collaborative and co-operative approach between all stakeholders is essential).
DSDM framework is prioritized to user and all team members. If the user is center that cannot always satisfy for all functions. Users are always changing. All team members are high level peoples. So, they can always over confidence. If so, the last principle of DSDM can't be success.
Generally, there are four types of DSDM toolset for using DSDM framework.
- MoSCoW prioritization
- Facilitated workshop
While developing new MIS, which will be mainly used MoSCoW prioritization and timeboxing.
What is MoSCoW
MoSCoW is a prioritization technique for agile project management of DSDM. The prioritization technique defines the requirements that must have, should have, could have and want to have but won't have this time. The effective value of MoSCoW prioritization is combined with timeboxing. So, MoSCoW prioritization and time-boxing are designed to work together for the system that using DSDM framework.
Advantages of MoSCoW prioritization
The benefit of MoSCoW prioritization is exactly identified of CSA requirements for new MIS. This can be defined all important functions (minimum usable subset) of CSA such as produce report, record KPI and record contract etc. And then, the project manager will be knew what are the important CSA by using MoSCoW prioritization. If the project manager did not use MoSCoW prioritization for MIS, that cannot be knew what are the important functions of CSA. MoSCoW prioritization can also help successful of CSA requirements and the CSA main objectives.
MoSCoW can be estimated all business requirements and rated to must have, should have, could have and won't have. Again, if the project timeframe is already set 18 months that the MoSCoW can adjust the requirements of CSA within fix timeframe. And then, MoSCoW can also help to understand priorities for CSA requirements. If the MIS cannot met must have requirements, the MIS can't be success.
MoSCoW prioritization can help what the requirements are important for system. And then, it is also providing which decisions are made over the whole project. This technique can early address what risk can occurs during developing new system. If the system exactly identified of must have and should have, the business can 80% success. MoSCoW prioritization allows flexibility with business requirements and that can also help to achieve fixed timescale with fixed resources. It allows in the project that the opportunity for a discussion around business and the tradeoffs of probably not undertaking certain requirements or activities while allowing the project to maintain time, resource and cost. All prioritization requirements can delivery real and critical business benefits.
Disadvantages of MoSCoW prioritization
MoSCoW prioritization technology is also new. So, it is difficult to use for first time users and not easy process. MoSCoW prioritization also has disadvantages. It is difficult to know what requirements are must have, should have, could have and won't have. One of the disadvantages is user always think all objective and requirement are must haves. Again, new must have requirements can appear during developing project.
Moreover, user cannot satisfied must have requirements. Because, user always think all requirements are important. Finally, user did not know what requirements must have, should have, could have and won't have. Generally, user will be difficult to understand of MoSCoW prioritization technique. It's difficult to choice effective prioritization using MoSCoW.
Description of timeboxing
Timeboxing is a time management technique in planning projects. It can be divided into a lot of separate time period (typically two or six weeks). All time period have own deliverable, cost and deadline. Timeboxing is mainly use in software development process of Rapid Development Method such as DSDM and Agile software development. Timeboxing must have scope and objectives based on prioritization requirements list.
The important thing of timeboxing is cannot change deadline. If does not timeboxing, the deliverables cannot be delivered. Timeboxing have five main stages such as "kick-off meeting, investigation, refinement, consolidation and closeout meeting".
Advantages of timeboxing
When timeframe are fixed, the project deliverables can't delay. The deliverable can produce every deadline of timeboxing. The main benefit for user side, user will be knew early what deliverables are in the deadline. And then, the project manager exactly calculates for staff payroll by using timeboxing in the project. While developing new MIS that defined requirements and objectives are reached at pre-determined and fixed date through continuous prioritization and flexing of requirements. Timeboxing is also reducing of waste time during developing new MIS. It is also cost saving. Because of deadline are already defined. At the end of the deadline, the deliverables can deliver. Risk can be reduced during developing New MIS. Because of the deliverables split into time box.
Project management point of view also has advantages. Because of, project manager will good handling for each time box. Timeboxing duration is not very long (typically two or six weeks). So, the project has more opportunity for success. Because of better management is also reason for project success.
The important benefit is MoSCoW prioritization technique for prioritizing the requirements addressed by each timebox to certain that what is delivered now will satisfy the immediate actual business needs. And then, timeboxing is very important aspect of MIS. If the DSDM project does not have timeboxing, the project management team can lose their objectives and run lack of control.
A major advantage of timeboxing is that the amount of work to be got within a timebox is smaller and therefore a greater degree of confidence is probably in effort estimates. Time is fixed but the deliverables can adjust. This is also main benefits of timeboxing. Timeboxing also don't have problem for a lot of functions. It can be split into each timebox.
Timeboxing paradigm is empowered. So, the timeboxing require all team members must be agreed. Otherwise, user must be able to approved deliverables of product at the end of the timebox.
Disadvantages of timeboxing
Timeboxing technique is difficult to understand. Because of it is new technique. And then, it can't have standard timeframe. Some of the resources say, timeboxing is typically two or six weeks. Other resources say, six or nine weeks. If one of the people did not agree the objective in the timebox, that can be difficult to handle. If so, the project can't meet business requirements. If the new system develops by using DSDM framework, the project manager has good ethic, negotiation skill and motivation skill. Because of, project manager must be needed to negotiate and motivation within the working team.
And then, each timeboxing have five stages (See Appendix B). So, feel overloading who is involved in the timebox. The main disadvantages is time is fixed for each time box. For example, if the unknown risk occurs (legal risk) while developing one important function within timebox. How to manage this risk? If so, the project management team only countermeasure how many effect on project. The project cannot success the objectives. This is main disadvantages of timeboxing.