The questionnaires have been edited
5. Analysis and Findings
After the questionnaires have been edited to check, the data was input in SPSS and then analyzed with both SPSS and Microsoft Excel.
It is important to highlight that the response rate was only 60.3%, that is, out of 116, only 70 questionnaires were received. Hence the analysis was carried out for only 70 questionnaires.
The data has been analyzed in terms of values and percentages. The information has been displayed in percentage and frequency by means of pie charts, bar charts and tables so as to simplicity understanding of the findings.
5.1 Section A: Performance Management System
Question 1.(a): Regarding the performance management at Rogers Aviation, you are:
The figure 5.1.1 demonstrates the level of acceptance of the performance management at Rogers Aviation by the staff. It can clearly be seen that 47.1% employees are in favor of system, 44.3% are neutral to it, while the remaining 8.6% are against it.
Question 1.(b): With a tick, please specify the reason(s) for your choice in question 1.(a).
Majority of employees think that the performance management at Rogers Aviation helps to improve areas of weaknesses (24.1%) and to understand what is expected from them (23.0%). Others think that it increases commitment (14.9%) and it aids for self-development (14.4%). However, there are some who think that the performance management is stressful (8.6%), it is an additional work burden (4.6%), it is too time consuming (2.9%), or simply that it is of no use (7.5%).
As a whole, it can be deduced that employees view the performance management more advantageous with 76.4% vote for its benefits, rather than disadvantageous as compared to 23.6% vote for its drawbacks.
Question 2: According to you, what are the purposes of the performance management which are conducted at Rogers Aviation?
Most of the respondents, 37.5%, think that the main purpose of performance management carried out at Rogers Aviation is for administrative decisions. On the other hand, 22.1% think that it is only an annual ritual, like an event which occurs every year. 21.3% believe that it is used for salary decision, while 11.8% believe that it is used for promotion decision. The remaining 4.4% and 2.9% think that it is used to make decisions about transfer and termination respectively.
Question 3.(a): Who carry out your appraisal?
The figure shows that 54.5% of the appraisal exercises are carried out by the Head of department. 43.2% of the respondents say that they are appraised by their immediate supervisor. A very small portion of employees, who are appraised by more than one person, are also assessed by their colleagues (1.1%) and by their subordinates (1.1%).
It can be inferred that mostly superiors appraise their subordinates. Employees are very rarely appraised by their colleagues and subordinates, and their own assessments are never performed by themselves.
Question 3.(b): Your performance appraisal is conducted:
As it can be observed, appraisal exercises are carried out every year for the majority of employees (94.3%). However, there are a few employees, 5.7%, whose appraisals are conducted at every 6 months interval. Appraisals are never carried out every month or quarterly.
Question 4: Are you satisfied with the frequency of the appraisals exercise?
Figure 5.1.6 shows that 45.7% employees are satisfied with the frequency of the appraisal exercises, 18.6% are quite satisfied and 10.0% are very satisfied. However, 17.1% of the respondents are not very satisfied and 8.6% are not satisfied at all.
Therefore, according to the majority of the respondents (74.3%, that is 45.7% + 18.6% + 10.0%), yearly appraisals (as observed from figure 5.1.5), is satisfactory.
Question 5.(a): Do you get all the feedback you need to perform effectively?
As it can clearly be seen from figure 5.1.7, the percentages of employees who get all the feedback in order to perform effectively (77.1%) are more than three times greater (3.4 times) than those who do not receive any feedback (22.9%).
Question 5.(b): If YES to question 5.(a), from whom do you receive feedback?
As it can be observed, majority of the staff receive feedback from their supervisors (82.3%). The percentages of employees who get feedback from their colleagues are 12.9%, while those who receive feedback from their subordinates are 4.8%.
It can be concluded that it is mostly superiors who give feedback to their subordinates, and that employees rarely receive feedback from their colleagues and even more rarely from their subordinates.
Question 5.(c): If YES to question 5.(a), how often do you receive feedback?
Referring to figure 5.1.9 and table 5.1, all the 59.3% population who receive feedback every year are appraised on a yearly basis. Among the 24.1% population who get feedback every month, 2 (out of 13 respondents) are appraised at every 6 months interval and 11 are appraised yearly. Hence, majority of the respondents (32 out of 54) who receive feedback get it every year.
A few have stated that sometimes they receive feedback more often than they have specified in the categories above. For a very small portion, it is not really on a regular basis as they get feedback during frequent meetings.
Question 5.(d): Personally, after how much time interval would you like to receive feedback so that you can work effectively?
This question was left open-ended, and the answers of the respondents have been grouped into five different categories, which are shown in figure 5.1.10.
As it can be observed from figure 5.1.10 and table 5.2, majority of employees want to receive feedback every 6 months (30.0%), and these are mainly employees who get feedback on a yearly basis. Moreover, 10 respondents out of 32, who receive feedback yearly, are among the 27.1% who say they prefer to receive feedback on a 3 months basis. Hence, most respondents who receive feedback yearly (32 out of 54) would prefer to get it on a 6 months or 3 months basis to work more effectively. However, those who receive feedback monthly are rather satisfied since out of 13 respondents, 9 opt again for monthly feedback.
Question 6.(a): Have you ever obtained negative feedback or poor rating for your appraisal?
Question 6.(b): If YES to question 6.(a), did it:
As it can be seen from table 5.3, out of 70 respondents 48 have, at least once, received negative feedback or poor rating for their appraisals. For majority of the respondents (31) it acted as a motivating factor, while 9 were discouraged to work. The remaining 8 employees were indifferent to it.
Question 7: Do you keep receiving the same appraisal results, year in and year out, no matter how hard you strive?
The percentages of respondents who do not receive the same appraisal results every year (68.6%) are more than twice of the respondents (2.2 times) who indeed receive the same results year in and year out, though they work hard.
5.2 Section B- Degree of Satisfaction with the actual Performance Management System
Question 8: On a scale of 1 to 5, how far do you agree with the following statements?
Figure 5.2.1 shows the level of agreement of the staff on four different statements. The level of agreement of each statement is examined below.
The first statement is: "Your appraiser(s) is (are) familiar with the quality of your performance". Majority of the respondents vote for agree with 61.4%, 20.0% have no opinion, 10.0% completely agree about the statement, 8.6% disagree about it, while none say that they completely disagree.
The second statement is: "Your appraiser(s) help(s) you to improve your performance during the period of appraisal". The percentages of employees who agree about this fact (71.4%; among whom 54.3% agree and 17.1% completely agree) are more than four times greater (4.5 times) than those who disagree about it (15.8%; among whom 12.9% disagree and 2.9% completely disagree). The remaining 12.9% respondents have no opinion.
The third statement is: "The support and direction given by your appraiser(s) are satisfactory". Majority of employees agree about this statement (50.0%), 18.6% are neutral and have no opinion, 17.1% say that they completely agree about this fact, 12.9% disagree about it, while 1.4% completely disagree.
The forth statement is: "As a whole, you are satisfied with the appraisal system at Rogers Aviation". As is can be seen from the figure, 34.3% respondents vote for agree, 21.4% say that they strongly agree and the same percentages of respondents (21.4%) have no opinion. Additionally, 18.6% disagree about the statement, while 4.3% completely disagree about it. Consequently, the percentages of employees who agree (55.7%), though the level of agreement differs, are more than two times greater (2.4 times) than those who disagree about it (22.9%).
Question 9: To what extent do you agree that your appraiser(s) is (are):
Figure 5.2.2 shows the level of agreement of the staff about certain criteria of their appraiser(s). The level of agreement of each statement is studied below.
The first criterion is: ‘Honest'. From the figure, the majority of employees vote for agree with 50.0%, the next highest percentages are for strongly agree with 27.1%, 14.3% employees are indifferent, 8.6% disagree, while none strongly disagree.
The second criterion is: ‘Accurate'. The figure shows that 47.1% employees agree that their appraisers are accurate, 24.3% are neutral, 17.1% strongly agree with this fact, 10.0%, however, disagree about it and 1.4% employees strongly disagree. It can be noted that the percentages of respondents who agree (47.1% + 17.1%) are more than five times greater (5.6 times) than those who disagree (10.0% + 1.4%).
The third criterion is: ‘Objective'. The highest responses are obtained for agree, with 51.4%, then it can be seen that 22.9% employees are indifferent, 18.6% strongly agree, 7.1% disagree, while none strongly disagree.
The forth criterion is: ‘Unbiased'. As it can be seen from the figure, the maximum responses vote for the category indifferent (37.1%), that is, the employees do not really have an opinion whether their appraisers are biased or not. 34.3% respondents agree about it, 15.7% vote for disagree, 11.4% say that they strongly agree, while 1.4% strongly disagree.
As a whole, it can be said that majority of the respondents find that their appraisals are conducted rightly, given that most of them agree about the four criteria discussed above.
Question 10: How much do you trust your appraiser(s)?
Figure 5.2.3 shows that the level of trust of subordinates on their superiors varies, such that 38.6% trust their appraisers to some extent, 25.7% above average, 20.0% to a great extent, 12.9% below average, while the remaining 2.9% do not trust them at all. What can be observed here is that though the level of trust differs, the percentages of respondents who trust their appraisers are 84.3% as compared to 15.8% who do not trust them.
Question 11: As a whole, do you find your appraisals fair?
77.2% of the respondents find their appraisals fair; among whom 35.7% choose fair, 32.9% opt for quite fair and 8.6% very fair. Yet, there are 22.8% employees who say that they find their appraisals unfair; among whom 17.1% vote for quite unfair and the remaining 5.7% choose very unfair.
Question 12: Do you feel valued and recognized for the work you are contributing? (Do you feel fairly compensated for your contribution?)
62.9% of the respondents say that they feel valued and recognized to some extent for their contribution. However, it should be pointed out that the percentages of respondents who say they are well compensated are the same as those who say the contrary (18.6%).
5.3 Section C- Degree of Commitment to the organization
Question 13: You are requested to show to what extent the factors mentioned below motivate you to perform better in your work.
Figure 5.3.1 shows the level of motivation of the staff based on certain factors. The level of motivation of each factor is studied below.
The first factor is: ‘Promotions‘. As it can be seen from the figure, the majority of respondents find promotions a motivating factor (37.1%), 30.0% are neutral to it, 20.0% find it very motivating, while the remaining 12.8% find it not motivating; among whom 1.4 % say it is not motivating and 11.4% say it is not motivating at all.
The second factor is: ‘Salary increase'. Unlike for promotion, the majority of respondents find salary increase as a very motivating factor (37.1%). A large percentage of employees, 34.3%, find it motivating, while 14.3% are not motivated at all with it. The percentages of employees who are neutral to salary increase and who find it not motivating, are the same (7.1%).
The third factor is: ‘Fringe Benefits'. The majority of respondents say that it is a motivating factor (57.2%); among whom 38.6% find it motivating and 18.6% say that it is very motivating. 24.2%, on the other hand, say that fringe benefits do not motivate them; among whom 17.1% are not motivated at all and 7.1% are simply not motivated. The remaining 18.6% say that they are neutral to it.
The forth factor is: ‘Training'. 51.4% of the respondents are motivated by training, while 12.9% are not motivated. On the extreme sides, 18.6% are very motivated, whereas 10.0% are not motivated at all. Only a minority of 7.1% say that their performances are not affected by training.
Question 14: How committed are you to the organization?
Majority of the respondents (50.0%) say that they are committed to the organization, 31.4% are very committed, 15.7% do not really have an opinion, and the remaining 2.9% say that they are not committed. It is to be pointed out that no one says that they are not committed at all to the company.
5.4 Section D- Training and Career Development
Question 15: Do you feel that the appraisal helps you to identify areas for further growth and development?
Figure 5.4.1 clearly shows that the percentages of employees who feel that the appraisals help them to identify areas for further growth and development (77.1%) are 3.4 times greater than those who feel the contrary (22.9%).
Question 16: How far do you agree with the following statement: "My company takes care of my training and development."
44.3% employees agree that Rogers Aviation takes care of their training and development, while 11.4% disagree about this fact. On the extremes sides, 12.9% strongly agree, whereas none strongly disagree. The rest of the respondents (31.4%) are indifferent to the statement.
Question 17.(a): Do you think you need further training?
A very large portion of the respondents say that they certainly require further training (84.3%), while the rest, 15.7%, say that they do not think they need it.
Question 17.(b): If YES to question 17.(a), why do you think so?
57. 1% employees need further training in order to help them to advance in their career, whereas 42.9% need it to improve their job performances, as illustrated in the table 5.4. It can be observed that majority want more training to aid their career development.
Question 18: If you get an opportunity to shift to another company, what will be the most determining reason(s) for you to leave Rogers Aviation?
30.8% of the respondents say that they may shift to another company for a better pay, 21.4% are more likely to shift if they get better opportunity to maximize their potential, 19.2% vote for more recognition for the work they perform, 14.3% say they will shift in order to get promotion more rapidly, while the remaining 14.3% vote for better working conditions or environment.
However, among all the 70 respondents, only 2 pointed out that they do not intend to shift and leave Rogers Aviation since they are very committed to the organization and they are very satisfied with its performance management system.
As it can be observed, the employees are mostly concerned with a better salary. Hence better pay again proves to be a motivational factor (as observed from question 12 also).
Question 19: Any other comments that you would like to add about the appraisal system will be highly appreciated.
This was an open-ended question, which a few respondents filled out. Additional comments they mentioned are as follows:
- Some would like to gain more recognition for their work and effort, though not in terms of salary increase.
- Others say that they would like to be more compensated for their contribution to the company, and would also wish to be provided with more ‘motivation inspirations'.
- A rather large number of respondents pointed out that they new challenges and responsibilities for their development
- A few mentioned that performing routine job is boring, and they would like that management adopt the system of job rotation. This will also help them to become more flexible and develop new skills.
- Additionally, some would like some amendments to be brought to the system, especially to the criteria of performance assessment.
- Some also added that they would like to have a better working environment.
- Finally, some have suggested to involve more people (other than their superiors) in the appraisal exercise and to make it become more professional.
5.5 Section E- Background Information
Question 20: Gender
Table 5.2 shows the number of men and women who participated in the survey. As it can be observed, there are more female respondents (50) than male (20).
Question 21: Age
From table 5.3, it can be observed that majority of women who participated in this survey is found in the age group of 18-27 years (17 out of 50), while the majority of men is found in the age group of 28-37 years (8 out of 20). Maximum number of respondents recorded is in the age group of 28-37 years (23 out of 70).